الگو شناسی کالبدی و فضایی خانه ایرانی در اقلیم گرم و خشک (مورد مطالعه: خانه عباسیان کاشان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی استخراج ازرساله و پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، واحد بروجرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بروجرد، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، واحد تهران شرق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در طول تمام دوران خانه در فرهنگ ایرانیان به خصوص بعد از اسلام دارای اهمیت بسزایی است. خانه از جهت حفظ حریم خانواده به عنوان مکانی مقدس شناخته شده، دسترسی بیرون به درون خانه ایرانی دارای شبکه فضایی نظامی می‌باشد. این شبکه، فضای عمومی و خصوصی خانه را در سه‌لایه، لایه اول؛ فضای باز، لایه دوم؛ فضای پوشیده و لایه سوم؛ فضای بسته مورد تفکیک قرار داده است. زیرا ورود به خانه دارای درجه اهمیت و سلسه‌مراتب دسترسی به تمام نقاط خانه ایرانی یک اصل جداناشدنی معماری سکونتگاه‌ها است. هرچند در سال‌های اخیر گسست فضایی عناصر معماری از مقیاس خرد تا کلان، کالبد سکونتگاه شهرهای تاریخی ایران را دچار بی‌هویتی نموده است. ازاین‌رو خانه‌های تاریخی ایران گنجینه‌ای از مفاهیم و الگوهای طراحی، همچنین منبع الهام برای معماری خانه‌های معاصر در دسترس است. با بازشناسی و درک صحیح نظام فضایی می‌توان شرایط آسایش بصری، استفاده بهینه از فضا را دستور کار معماری حال حاضر قرارداد. لذا پژوهش حاضر از نوع تحقیقات توسعه‌ای و از لحاظ روش از نوع تحقیقات تاریخی - توصیفی به طور خاص خانه تاریخی عباسیان کاشان را موردمطالعه قرار داده است. بررسی انجام شده بیان گر مشخصه های عناصر فضایی با هدف ایجاد سلسله مراتب، پیوستگی فضایی که خود انسجام بخش در تمام فضاها در نظام جزء به کل الگو حاکم بر معماری خانه تاریخی است، در متن مقاله الگو های ارائه شده شناسایی مفصل های انسجام بخش، به عنوان فضاهای بینابین، عامل پیوستگی ساختار فضایی سکونتگاهای ایران ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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