بررسی بلایای طبیعی از نگاه حقوق بین‌الملل؛ مطالعه موردی ایران

نوع مقاله: ---

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی حقوق، واحد گرمسار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار ایران.

2 استادیار حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران.

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران.

چکیده

تاکنون ابعاد و زوایای مختلف این بحران ها مورد پژوهش قرار گرفته است اما می‌توان گفت در مواردی که مدیریت آن ها از توان یک کشور به تنهایی خارج است بایستی همه‌ی کشورها در حد توان کشور گرفتار بحران را کمک کنند. باسؤال اصلی مقاله این است که حقوق بین‌الملل دارای چه قواعد و چارچوب‌هایی برای مدیریت کارآمد بحران در جهان است؟ روش این مقاله توصیفی تحلیلی است. نتایج این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که کاهش و کنترل خطرات و آسیب‌پذیری ناشی از بلایای طبیعی و آمادگی پیش از وقوع بلا، اقدامات اضطراری حین بلا و اقدامات ترمیمی پس از آن، از جمله اموری هستند که در حقوق بین‌الملل به آن‌ها پرداخته شده است. از طرف دیگر، احترام به حقوق بنیادین و رفع نیازهای اولیه‌ی افراد متأثر از بلایای طبیعی یکی از مهم‌ترین مسائل موجود در این زمینه بوده که مورد توجه حقوق بین‌الملل قرار گرفته است. در خصوص کلیه‌ی این مسائل اسناد مختلفی، در عرصه‌ی حقوق بین‌الملل موجود است، اما فقدان یک سند جامع بین‌المللی که ضمن پرداخت به ابعاد مختلف بلایای طبیعی و حقوق افراد متأثر از آن، عام‌الشمول و الزام‌آور نیز باشد، کاملاً احساس می‌شود. کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل، در سال 2007، کار بر روی پیش‌نویسی در این زمینه، با عنوان حمایت از افراد در بلایا را آغاز کرد که تاکنون 21 ماده از آن تدوین شده است.

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-        Internet resources

  1. https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/701891.pdf
  2. https://www.debevoise.com