بررسی جغرافیای جرم در کلان‌شهرهای ایران: مطالعه موردی شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد حقوق جزا و جرم‌شناسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران

2 استادیار حقوق جزا، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران

چکیده

چکیده

بررسی جغرافیایی نخستین کوشش علم جغرافیا در باب تحلیل رابطۀ میان محیط و رفتار انسان است. بررسی‌ها نشان می‌دهد که معماری و شهرسازی بر میزان وقوع جرم تأثیر دارد. محیط‌های شهری کم ‌تردد، تاریک و غیرقابل رؤیت مانند حاشیه شهرها معمولاً به محل تجمع معتادان، محل مناسبی برای خرید و فروش مواد مخدر و اموال مسروقه تبدیل می‌شود. پدیده جرم یکی از بزرگ‌ترین مشکلات اجتماعی و از خطرناک‌ترین آفت­های ممکن است، با مروری بر تاریخ در می‌یابیم پیشگیری از جرم در تاریخ عمدتاً به مفهوم پیشگیری از تکرار جرم بوده نه پیشگیری از وقوع جرم. آنچه در بررسی جغرافیایی جرائم شـهری اهـمیت دارد، رابطه فضا و محیط شهری با رفتارهای اجتماعی از نوع منفی و ناهنجار آن است. هدف اصلی این مقاله عبارت است از بررسی و تحلیل نقش مؤلفه‌های محیطی کلان‌شهرهای ایران به ویژه تهران در وقوع آمار جرم در آن‌ها است. سؤال اصلی مقاله این است که نقش مؤلفه‌های محیطی کلان‌شهرهای ایران به ویژه تهران در وقوع آمار جرم در آن‌ها چگونه است؟ فرضیه‌ای را که برای تحلیل و بررسی این سؤال در صدد آزمون آن هستیم این است که برخی مؤلفه‌های محیطی کلان‌شهرهای ایران به ویژه تهران وقوع جرم را تسهیل کرده است. روش انجام این تحقیق با توجه به موضوع و اهداف و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت توصیفی – تحلیلی و از طریق بررسی متون قانونی و نظریات حقوقدانان و فقهای در خصوص موضوع حاضر است. بر این اساس جمع‌آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه‌ای و مراجعه به پایگاه‌های داده و جستجوی اینترنتی مقالات دارای درجه علمی معتبر و به روز رسانی شده خواهد بود. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت فیش‌برداری و بانک‌های اطلاعاتی است. روش تجزیه‌وتحلیل در این مقاله به صورت کیفی و استدلالی خواهد بود. بدین شیوه که متغیرهای موضوع را مورد بررسی قرار داده و ضمن توصیف و تحلیل داده‌های گردآوری شده به صورت نظامند به تبیین ابعاد مختلف موضوع پرداخته و با گذار از آنچه هست به آنچه باید باشد، داده‌ها مورد استدلال قرار می‌گیرند

کلیدواژه‌ها


References

Bayat, Bahram (2008), Sociological Explanation of the Sense of Security among Tehrani Citizens, Ph.D. University of Isfahan.

Bayanloo, Yousef and Mansourian, Mohammad Karim (2006), The article on the relationship between population density and crime rate, Journal of Social Welfare, No. 22. 92-65.

Pour Mousavi, Seyyed Moussa and Saeed Zanganeh Shahraki and Narges Ahmadi Fard and Naseh Abdi (2011), The Long-Range Impact of Urban Crime, Case Study: Twenty-Four Regions of Tehran, Quarterly Journal of Human Geographic Research, Vol. 77, P. 61 73.

Poor Ahmad, Ahmad and Mohammad Taghi Ranhemi and Mohsen Kalantari (2003), Geographical Survey of Crimes in Tehran, Geographical Research Quarterly, Sh. 44, pp. 81 89, Recovering from http://www.sid.ir/en /VEWSSID/J_pdf/51913824409.pdf

Tavasoli, Gholam Abbas (2002), in the theory of sociology, the organization of the study and compilation of human science books (position), third edition.

Tavasoli, Mahmoud (1373), Social Life in Urban Space, Center for Urban Studies and Research.

A group of writers (2008), social harm and its evolution in Iran, Tehran, Awareness, Second Edition, p. 15.

Durkheim, Emile (1368), quoted from Knowledge, Taj Mahal, Who is the culprit, What is Criminology, Tehran, Kayhan, Second Edition, p. 46

Dickens, Peter (1998), Urban Sociology: Local Social and Human Nature, Translated by: Hossein Behrouzan, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi Publishing.

Rabbani, Rasoul and Vahida, Fuden (2002), Urban Sociology, Tehran: Position.

Rabiei Naser (2008), Investigating the Socioeconomic Status of Offenders and Offenders in Tehran City ", Journal of Rehabilitation and Development, Vol. 4, No. 50.

Rezvani, Mohammad Reza et al. (2010), Geography of crime in rural areas with an emphasis on livestock theft in the quarterly district of Ghorveh city ", Journal of Management Studies, pp. 38-63.

Ziyari, Karamatollah (2009), Study of Comfort and Security in Yazd Neighborhoods, Human Geography Research, No. 7

Sadeh, Mahdi (1375), Methods of Research with Emphasis on Applied Aspects. "Tehran: Publishing, Year.

Shokei, Hossein (1369), Social Geography of cities. Tehran: Publishing Jihad University, Second Edition, 1369, p. 475.

Sediq Sarvestani (2004), Social Pathology, Second Edition, Tehran: its publication.

Talebi, Jaleh (2004), Social Relations in Urban Space, Journal of Social Sciences, No. 43.

Tehran Master Plan (2006), Center for Urban Studies and Planning in Tehran, responsible for the preparation of comprehensive and detailed plans of Tehran.

Abbasi Workay, Elham (2008), Spatial identification and analysis of crime centers in Qazvin city using Geographic Information System (GIS), GIS Thesis Master of Geography and Urban Planning, Qazvin University. The

Abbasi Varaki, Elham (2008), Spatial Identification and Analysis of Mass Crime Centers in Qazvin City Using Geographic Information System, Master's Thesis, Zanjan University, Faculty of Humanities.

Ali Abadi, Ali and Ahmadi, Kaveh (2002), Long-term Planning of the Social and Cultural Part, Case Study of Iranian Society.

Alisherah, Fardin and Najibi, Maryam (2006), Women and Fear of Crime in Urban Spaces, Social Welfare Magazine. No. 22. 901-231.

Fyalk, Yankl­(1382), urban sociology, translation Nik Abdul Hussein Gohar, Tehran: Agah publishing.

Kalantari, Mohsen and Ismaillesfari­(2008), Application of New Technologies in Police Affairs, Case Study of Crime Victimization, Journal of Journal of Prevention of Crime, pp. 34, 46.

Kalantari, Mohsen and Ayatollah Ayat­(2007), Impact of environmental conditions on the occurrence of delinquency and prevention strategies, Case study: Offenses committed in Tehran, Journal of crime prevention studies, pp. 43-65.

Kalantari, Mohsen and Ali Akbar Ghahremani and Younes Khosravi and Kazem Jabbari­(2009), Management and analysis of delinquency data in the central part of Tehran using interpolation and geographic information systems, Journal of Management Studies, pp. 483 504

Kalantari, Mohsen and Mahdi-Tokoli­(2007), Identification of urban crime centers, Journal of crime prevention studies, pp. 75-100.

Kalantari, Mohsen (2001), Study of Crime Geography in the Districts of Tehran. Ph.D. University of Tehran, p. 49.

Kalantari, Mohsen (2003), Geographical Survey of Crimes in Tehran, Doctoral Dissertation, Tehran University, Faculty of Geography.

Kozer, Lewis (1996), The Life and Thought of the Elders of Sociology, translated by Mohsen Solati, Scientific Publishing.

Coen, Bruce (1981), In an Introduction to Sociology, Translated by Mohsen Solati, Tehran: Farhang Contemporary Publishing.

Kennia, Mahdi (1994), Criminology Foundations Volume II, Tehran: Tehran University Press.

Kay Nia, Mehdi (2000), Foundations of Criminology. Tehran University Press, Fourth Edition, 2000, p. 469.

Kay Nia, Mehdi (2005), Criminal Psychology, Growth Publishing.

Kiya Nia, Mahdi (2007), in Criminal Sciences and Criminal Sociology, University Press, Tehran.

Kay Nia, Mahdi (2007), Criminology Foundations, Volume I, Tehran, University Press, 10th Edition

Marshall, Catherine and Gretchen. B. Basman (1998), Qualitative Research Method, Translated by Ali Parsayian and Dr. Seyed Mohammad Arabi, Tehran: Office of Cultural Studies.

Modus, Atoosa (1983), Crime, Violence and Sense of Security in Public Townships, Journal of Social Welfare Research, vol. 6, No. 2. 11-82.

Statistics Center of Iran (2009), Statistical Yearbook of Tehran, Tehran: Iran Statistics Center.

Morgaghi Torqabeh, Mohammad (1998), An Effective City Policies on Prevention of Crimes, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti.

Mazzulaman, Reza (1353), Criminology, Tehran, Khorrami, Volume II, p. 21

Opponents, Reza (1356), General Criminology, Tehran, Tehran University, p. 181

Social Deputy of NAJA (2009), Tehran Police Command.

Maleki, Mehdi (2010), Geography, Crime, Boom, Tehran: Danesh Publication.

Momtaz, Farideh (1973), City Sociology, Public Joint Stock Company.

Mousavi, Mirstar Sadr (1999), Urban Planning in Iran, University of Science and Technology, Third Edition.

Nabavi, Abdolhossein (1995), Investigating the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Urban Crime in Ahvaz, Thesis of Ph.D. in Tehran University.

Najafi Abrandabadi, Ali Hossein, Hamid Hashembeigi (1998), Criminology Encyclopedia, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti.

Hadipour, Halima (1999), Investigation of the boundaries of the districts of the 1st municipality of Tehran, Master's thesis, Tehran: Islamic Azad University of Tehran.

Weisberg, Herbert, Brown, Broussy (1899), in the study of data scrolling and analysis, translation by Jamal Abedi, Academic Center.

Latin Refrences

Anselin lue(2000) Spatial Analsis of crime. national of justice from the 2- Anselin lue(2000) Spatial Analsis of crime. national of justice from the World Wide Web ; www.nij.com.216

World Wide Web ; www.nij.com.213

Brown Laure (2000) Geography of crime. university of Wollonggong.www.geogs242.com. 2

Ford, R (1998), The Razors Edge”, the Boston Globe Magazine.

Gelea, S. A. Karpati and B. Kannedy (2002). “Social Capital and Violence in the United States, 1974-1993”. Social Science & Medicine, 55. (8).: 1373-1383.

Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency, Berkeley: Berkeley & Los Angeles, University of California Press.

Edwards, Robyn. (2002)..Violence Against Women and Crime Prevention, University

Hirschi, Travis (1969),causes of delinquency,Berkeley and los angeles:university of California press.

Paolo Buonanno, Daniel Montolio. T. (2008). Identifying the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of crime across spanish provinces, International Review of law and Economics-28, PP89-97

Ackerman, W. V. & Murray, A. T. (2004) "Assessing spatial patterns of crime in‌ Lima‌", Ohio‌. Cities, 21(5), 423 437. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2004.07.008

Luo, X. (2012) Spatial‌ Patterns‌ of‌ Neighbourhood Crime in Canadian Cities: The Influence of Neighbourhood and City Contexts, A thesis presented‌ to‌ the University of Waterloo for the degree of Master of Science in Geography‌, Waterloo‌, Ontario‌, Canada, 2012. http://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Ratcliffe, J. h. (2004) "The hot Spots Matrix: A Fram Work‌ for‌ the Spatio- Tem- Poral of Crime Reduction". Police Practice and Research, 5(1), 23-5.doi‌: 4260‌.42000191305‌/156/10.180.

Weisburd, D. Bruinsma, J.N. G. & Bernasco, W. (2009) Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology: Historical‌ Development‌, Critical Issues, and Open Questions In David Weisburd, Wim Bernasco, Gerben J. N. Bruinsma‌ (Eds‌.). Putting‌ Crime in its Place. London: Springer Science+Business Media.