ارزیابی سطح کارآیی شبکه معابر شهری تهران هنگام بروز حوادث غیرمترقبه (‌مطالعه موردی منطقه‌ 9)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای رشته جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران

2 استادیار جغرافیای طبیعی، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران

3 دانشیار جغرافیای طبیعی، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده

ایران یکی از ده کانون حادثه‌خیز در جهان است که از چهل و سه نوع حادثه شناخته ‌شده در جهان، سی و سه نوع آن را در ایران شاهد بوده یا خواهیم بود. شبکه معابر در مناطق مسکونی نـقش تـعیین کننده‌ای در تأمین فضای باز و مناسب جهت گریز از عوامل‌ خطرزا و دسترسی به نقاط امـن­، تـسهیل عـملیات امداد و نجات پس از بحران و تسریع عملیات آواربرداری، پاک‌سازی و بازسازی دارند. شبکه معابر شـهری بـه صورت سلسله مراتبی ایجاد می‌شوند‌ تا‌ بافت‌های مسکونی از نظر سرعت خـودروهای عـبوری در امـنیت قرار گیرند و همچنین کاربری­های عمومی شهری جهت حمل و نقل و تردد از سرعت‌ مناسب‌ اسـتفاده کـنند­. سؤال اصلی مقاله حاضر این است که آیا در صورت وقوع حوادث غیرمترقبه شبکه معابر شهری منطقه­ 9 تهران می‌توانند به مدیریت بحران پیش آمده کمک کنند؟ فرضیه مقاله حاضر این است که با وجود توسعه کمی معابر شهری در منطقه 9 تهران اما به دلیل این که فاقد عرض مناسب بوده و خود می‌توانند باعث ایجاد حوادث غیرمترقبه شوند. نتایج مقاله نیز نشان می­دهد که در راسـتای اهداف مقابله با حوادث غیرمترقبه که‌ هـمانا کـاهش آسیب‌پذیری است، مـلاحظات مـربوط به شبکه ارتباطی بـه‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین عناصر در افزایش و کاهش آسیب‌پذیری، اهمیتی دو چندان دارد. در این خصوص اساسی‌ترین معیار در زمینه‌ کـارایی‌ شـبکه‌های ارتباطی در برابر حوادث مختلف، به عـرض آن­ها ارتـباط پیـدا مـی‌کند به ‌طوری که هـرچه عـرض معبر بیشتر باشد، ظرفیت معبر افزایش یافته و بنابراین توانایی مانور بیشتری جهت امدادرسانی‌ و حضور‌ وسایل نـقلیه امـدادی مـهیا می‌گردد. در این زمینه بوسیله روش‌های محاسباتی مـختلف مـی‌توان مـیزان پراکـندگی و انـباشت مـصالح ساختمانی ناشی از تخریب حوادث غیرمترقبه را در معابر برآورد نمود. با توجه به این مقدمه در این مقاله با استفاده از آمارهای رسمی و نیز نقشه‌های مختلف و نیز استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌های و نیز مقالات علمی و پژوهشی به ارزیابی سطح کارآیی شبکه معابر شهری تهران هنگام بروز حوادث غیرمترقبه با تأکید بر منطقه­ 9 پرداخته می­شود

Abstract
Iran is one of the top ten hot spots in the world of the forty-three types of incidents in the world, we have seen or will be thirty-three types of incidents in Iran. Transit networks in residential areas play a decisive role in providing open and suitable space to escape risk factors and access to safe areas, facilitate relief operations and post-crisis relief operations, and accelerate debris operations, clean up and restoration. Urban network networks are created hierarchically so that residential buildings can be considered in terms of the speed of passing vehicles and also use public utilities for transportation and traffic of the appropriate speed. The main question of the present article is that whether in the event of unexpected events Tehran metropolitan area 9 can help manage the crisis? The hypothesis of this paper is that despite the development of a few urban streets in the 9th district of Tehran but due to the lack of appropriate widths, this are not capable of managing unexpected events and can also cause unexpected incidents. The results of the paper also show that in line with the objectives of dealing with unexpected events That is, reducing the vulnerability, communications related considerations as one of the most important elements is important to double the vulnerability. In this regard, the most basic measure in terms of the efficiency of communication networks in managing various events is their relevance. So that the higher the width of the tunnel, the increased capacity and so the ability to maneuver more to help and the presence of relief vehicles is provided. In this regard, by means of different computational methods, the amount of dispersion and accumulation of building materials caused by the destruction of unexpected events in roads can be estimated. Given this introduction in this paper, using official statistics as well as different maps and using library resources as well as scientific and research articles, we will evaluate the level of efficiency of Tehran's public transit network in the event of unexpected accidents with regard to the 9th district.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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