تحلیل اثر نابرابری درآمد بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران (با ارائه یک مدل کاربردی در برنامه‌ریزی محیطی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مدیریت، حسابداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 مربی اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای اقتصاد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به طور کلی دغدغه محیط زیستی دغدغه­ای است پسا­مادی که خود محصول توسعه است و از بین بردن شکاف­های اقتصادی و طبقاتی که یکی از مهم‌ترین نمودهای آن توزیع برابر درآمد است از نمودهای اقتصادی توسعه است. حال اگر این حلقات زنجیروار تحلیلی را معکوس کنیم در می­یابیم که توزیع نابرابر درامد یعنی عدم توسعه‌یافتگی و این همه یعنی افت کیفیت محیط زیست. هدف از انجام تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر نابرابری درآمد بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران است. سؤال اصلی مقاله این است که نابرابری درآمد چه تأثیری بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران دارد؟ برای پاسخ‌گویی به سؤال اصلی سؤالات فرعی دیگری نیز در این مقاله مطرح می­شود از جمله این که وضعیت محیط زیست در ایران چگونه است؟ و این که مؤلفه‌های توسعه از جمله توزیع درامد در ایران در چه سطحی قرار دارند؟ به طور کلی یافته‌های این مقاله نشان می­دهد که در بازه‌های زمانی مختلف سیاست‌های توزیع برابر درآمدی باعث کاهش آلودگی زیست‌محیطی برای ایران می­شود؛ به عبارت دیگر در ایران، گرایش به تخریب محیط زیست در افراد ثروتمند بیشتر از افراد فقیر است و باز توزیع درآمد می‌تواند منجر به کاهش آلودگی سرانه شود. از طرف دیگر و در سطح کلان بین کنترل آلودگی و برابری اقتصادی یک ارتباط متقابل و دوجانبه وجود دارد به نحوی که با افزایش سرمایه‌گذاری برای کنترل آلودگی و بهبود کیفیت محیط زیست، منابع مالی کمتری جهت بهبود توزیع درآمد و برابری اقتصادی در دسترس خواهد بود. با توجه به این مقدمه در این مقاله تلاش خواهد شد به تحلیل اثر نابرابری درآمد بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران پرداخته شود. بدین منظور از داده‌های آماری دوره ۱۳95-۱۳۴۹ استفاده شده است. هم­چنین با استفاده از مدل خود توضیح با وقفه‌های توزیعی (ARDL) روابط کوتاه مدت و بلندمدت بین متغیرهای مدل برآورد شده و مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. هم­چنین ضریب جمله تصحیح خطا نشان می­دهد که در هر دوره 38 درصد از عدم تعادل تعدیل شده و به سمت روند بلندمدت خود نزدیک می­شود. آزمون­های ثبات ساختاری نیز نشان­دهنده باثبات بودن ضرایب تخمین در طول دوره مورد مطالعه هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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