بررسی آزادی مذهب در ژئوپلیتیک مذهبی عربستان سعودی با تأکید بر چارچوب حقوق مذهبی مورد حمایت سازمان ملل متحد

نویسندگان

1 استادیار حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بین الملل، پردیس کیش دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

چکیده

مذهب یکی از مهم­ترین ابعاد حیات ژئوپلیتیکی واحدهای سیاسی بوده و هست و علاوه بر این که عاملی برای تفکیک مرزهای سیاسی کشورها بوده همچنین یکی از معیارهای تقسیمات سیاسی و منطقه‌ای داخل کشورها هم به شمار می­رود. علاوه بر این در قرن بیستم و با کم رنگ شدن مرزهای سرزمینی و پیدایش نهادهای دارای اقتدار بین‌المللی مانند سازمان ملل متحد مذهب و مسائل مرتبط با مذهب همواره یکی از مهم‌ترین بنیان‌های مسائل تنش‌آفرین بوده است. هدف این مقاله بررسی آزادی مذهب در ژئوپلیتیک مذهبی عربستان سعودی با تأکید بر چارچوب حقوق مذهبی مورد حمایت سازمان ملل متحد است. سؤال اصلی مقاله این است که ژئوپلیتیک مذهبی عربستان سعودی دارای چه مختصات و ویژگی‌هایی است و اینکه آزادی مذهبی در چارچوب حقوق مذهبی مورد حمایت سازمان ملل متحد در عربستان سعودی دارایی چه وضعیتی است؟ علاوه بر این سؤال اصلی سؤالات فرعی دیگری نیز در این مقاله مطرح می‌شود از جمله این که حقوق مذهبی و از جمله آزادی مذهبی دارای چه تاریخچه و پیشینه‌ای در اسناد بین‌المللی بوده است و این که ژئوپلیتیک مذهبی عربستان سعودی دارای چه ساختارها و مرزبندی‌های داخلی است. به طور کلی نتایج این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که حقوق بین‌المللی، نه تنها روابط میان دولت­ها را تنظیم می­کند، بلکه به شناسایی حقوق انسانی افراد و حمایت از آن‌ها نیز اقدام می‌نماید. از جمله حقوق بشر که هر فرد انسانی از آن برخوردار است، حقوق مذهبی است. این حقوق در اسناد متعدد بین‌المللی ذی‌ربط مورد شناسایی و پذیرش قرار گرفته­اند. در جامعه عربستان که بر پایه روابط قبیله‌ای استوار است وجود تعصب و علقه نیرومند قبیله‌ای به علاوه مذهب، شکل‌دهنده کلی فرهنگ جامعه است. نظام حقوقی عربستان سعودی برگرفته از فقه حنبلی یکی از مذاهب اسلامی است. در عربستان سعودی با جمعیتی حدود 15 تا 20 درصد شیعه هیچ نماینده‌ای از شیعیان در مجلس شورای سعودی حضور ندارد. شیعیان حتی در مدارس حق مدیر شدن ندارند و تنها در سال‌های اخیر حق حضور در شورای شهر یافته‌اند. هیچ شیعه عربستانی حق حضور در ارتش یا دیگر نیروهای نظامی را ندارد. در این مقاله تلاش خواهد شد با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و مقالات علمی و پژوهشی و نیز اسناد سازمان‌های بین‌المللی آزادی مذهب در ژئوپلیتیک مذهبی عربستان سعودی با تأکید بر چارچوب حقوق مذهبی مورد حمایت سازمان ملل متحد تبیین و تحلیل گردد.

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