معیارهای کالبدی و تأثیر آن بر فرهنگ جرم زا در محلات مرفه و غیرمرفه شهر بابلسر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی استخراج ازرساله و پایان نامه

نویسنده

استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری دانشگاه پیام نور «تهران» ایران

چکیده

چکیده:
احساس امنیت در فضاهای شهری یکی از شاخص های کیفیت فضا محسوب می شود. با گسترش شهرنشینی و افزایش رفتارهای ناهنجار شهری به ویژه جرایم، این موضوع اهمیت زیادی یافته است. هدف از انجام این بررسی شناخت تأثیرات معیارهای کالبدی بر روی شکل گیری فرهنگ جرم زا در محله های مرفه و غیر مرفه شهر بابلسر می باشد. روش این تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی و از لحاظ هدف کاربردی است. به منظور مطالعه و شناخت وضعیت ساختارهای کالبدی محیطی محله های مرفه و غیر مرفه شهر بابلسر از روش میدانی بهره جسته ایم. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات مصاحبه، فیش برداری و پرسشنامه می باشد. نتایج نشان دهنده این است که در محله های مرفه، همه مؤلفه های معیار کالبدی، بالاتر از حد متوسط (3 = Mean) ولی در محله های غیر مرفه همه مؤلفه ها پایین تر از حد متوسط قرار دارند و همچنین بین مؤلفه های معیار کالبدی و شکل گیری فرهنگ جرم زا در دو نوع محله رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج نشان داده اند که هرچه مولفه های پاکیزگی محیط محله ای، فضای کالبدی و میزان روشنایی در محلات مورد مطالعه ارتقاء یابد به همان نسبت کاهش شکل گیری فرهنگ جرم زای بیشتری حاصل می شود. یکی از راهکارهایی که در این زمینه می توان پیشنهاد داد این است که ساخت و سازهای کالبدی و نور پردازی معابر و کوچه های محله های غیر مرفه شهر بابلسر بهسازی و ساماندهی گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


References:
1- Aghaeinia (1997), Reflection on Causes of Crime, Security Magazine, No 2, Tehran, Department of the Interior Ministry's security.
2- Bayat, Bahram (2008), Explain the sociological sense of security among citizens, Supervisors: Mehdi Adibi, Rasoul Rabbani. PhD thesis, University of Isfahan, Faculty of Science and Literature Humanities, Department of Sociology.
3- Bahreyni, Seyyed Hossein (1998), Urban design process, University of Tehran, Tehran.
4- Bahreyni, Hossein & Tajbakhsh, Golnaz (1998), The concept of territory in urban design, Journal of Fine Arts, Tehran University, No 6.
5- Falahat, Mohammad Sadegh (2006), The concept of a sense of place and its factors of shaping, Journal of Fine Arts, Tehran University, No 26.
6- Pier Moure, Marry Alen, liz Sabri (1994), Urban Spaces (design, Performance, management), translators: Hossein Rezaei, Mir Moezoddin Mojabi, Mohsen Rasouli, Tehran; Public Relations Department of Tehran Municipality and international.
7- Heshmati, Mohammad (2003), Defensible space- Urban design strategies to prevent and reduce crime, Tehran; Master's Thesis Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of shahid Beheshti.
8- Dickens, Peter (1998), Urban sociology, translate by Dr Hossein Behravan, Mashhad; Astan Quds Razavi Press.
9- Rvzbnam, Lourijiu, Viewless (2000), prevention of crime and environment, translate by reza Parvizi, Security Monthly, forth year, No 11 & 12, Interior Ministry security department.
10- Abdollahi Haghi, Maryam (2004), Crime prevention through urban land use planning in Zanjan, master thesis, University of Zanjan.
11- Kalantari, Mohsen (2003), Geodetic survey of crime in the areas of Tehran, Tehran, PHD thesis, Literature Faculty of Tehran University.
12- Gozón, Raymond (2005), Theoretical Criminology, translate by Mehdi Keynia, First Edition, Tehran, Majd.
13- Lynch, Kevin (1993), The face of city, translate by Manoucher Mozayani, Tehran University Press.
14- Mosavati Azar, Majid (1995), Social pathology- Sociology of deviance, Tehran, Nobel Publications.
15-Bennett, Trevor., (1986), Situational Crime Prevention From The Offender
Perspective, In Heal & Laycoke.
16-Carmona, matthew , Heath Tim, oc, taner and tiesdell steven (2003), public places urban spaces, Architectural press, New York, Paris.
17-Clarke, R.V. (ED.) (1997b), Rational Choice and Situational Crime Prevention, Ashgate.
18-Clarke, R.V. (Ed.) (2001), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, 2nded., Harrow and Heston, New York, NY.
19-Cozens, P.M., Neale, R.H., Whitaker, J., Hillier, D., Graham, M. (2003), "A critical review of street lighting, crime and the fear of crime in the British City", Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, Vol. 5 No.2.
20-Cozens, P.M., Saville, G., Hillier D., (2005), Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, Property Management, Vol. 23, No.15.
21-Crowe, T. (2000), Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design:  Applications of Architectural Design and Space Management Concepts, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
22- Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar, (1998), dictionary, Tehran University Press, second edition, new course, Volume Two
23-Farrington, D.P., Welsh, C. (2002), Effects of Improved Street Lighting on Crime: A Systematic Review, Crown Copyright, London, Home Office Research Study 251, Development and Statistics Directorate.
24- Ghurchi Beygi, Majid, (2007), Theoretical Foundations of crime prevention with environmental design (CPTED), Proceedings of the Regional Conference on situational prevention of crime, Azad University, Abarkouh, Yazd.
25- Heydarzade, Zahra. (2013), Achieving sustainable urban security in insecure areas with CPTED approach, case study: Javadieh neighborhood Bojnoord. National Conference on Architecture and Urbanism and sustainable development of vernacular architecture with a focus on the sustainable city (Mashhad).
26- Mollazade Ganji, Javid. (2013), the Study characteristics of the neighborhood in urban crime prevention, university of Mazandaran, Master's Thesis, Supervisor: Sedighe Lotfi.
27-Ogawa , Akiko- Shibasaki , Ryosuke (2003) , Analysis of the relations between the occurrence of crime and its spatial tendency in shibuy an area , Tokyo , Tokyo university.
28-Perkins, D. D, A. Abraham, R. Richard, and B. Taylor (1993) , the physical Environment of street crime, Journal of Environmental psychology.
29-Poyner, B., Webb, B. (1997), "Reducing theft from shopping bags in city centre markets", in Clarke, R.V. (Eds), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, 2nd ed., Harrow and Heston, Guilderland, NY.
30- Rahmat, Mohammad Reza,(2009) PhD student of Criminal and Criminology in Azad University, Tehran Research Science, Management crime prevention in urban desigining.
31- Sanei, Parviz , (1993), General criminal law, Library Treasure of Knowledge, Tehran, second edition, Volume one.
32- Sarir afraz, Mohammad. Makian, Somaye Sadat. Fahimifar, Fateme. (2009), Prevention of crime: Infrastructure to make society safe. Conference Proceedings of Favorite Safe Community, Tehran.
33-Spelman, W. (1993), "Abandoned buildings: magnets for crime?” Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 21 No.3.
34-Trancik, Roger (1986) , Finding lost space, Van Nostrand Reinhold company, New York.
35-Wekerl.G.R, Whitzman. C. (1994), Safe Cities; Guidelines for Planning, Designing and Management, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Canada.
36-Wekerl.G.R, Whitzman. C. (1995), Safe Cities; Guidelines for Planning, Designing and Management, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Canada. university-Department of political science and criminal Justise.
37-Wilson, J.Q., Kelling, G.L. (1982), "The police and neighbourhood safety ‘Broken windows’, The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 3 No.2.